The Bonsai & Penjing Collection
The Larz Anderson Collection of Japanese Dwarfed Trees at the Arnold Arboretum was originally imported into the United States by the Honorable Larz Anderson in 1913, upon his return from serving as ambassador to Japan. In April 1937, Isabel Anderson donated the majority of her late husband’s bonsai collection (30 plants) to the Arnold Arboretum, along with the funds necessary to build a shade house for their display. The rest of the Anderson bonsai came to the Arboretum following Isabel’s death in 1949. The core of the collection consists of 6 large specimens of compact hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Chabo-hiba’)—each between 150 and 275 years old—that Anderson purchased from the Yokohama Nursery Company. Additional bonsai have been acquired or added to the collection overtime, the most recent being a gift of 6 specimens in the fall of 2015. All told, 38 masterfully curated specimens comprise the Bonsai and Penjing Collection. In much of Japan and milder parts of the United States, bonsai can be left outdoors all winter with only minimal protection from the elements. In New England’s more severe climate, however, plants in containers need to be protected during the cold months. Arboretum bonsai are stored in a concrete-block structure that is maintained at 33 to 36 degrees Fahrenheit, and the plants are checked for water once a week. The key to successful winter storage is to make sure that the plants are fully dormant before they go in and that they come out before they show any signs of growth. Generally speaking, our plants go into cold storage in November and come out in mid April, actual dates depending on weather and temperature. Records of the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection [pdf] documents the history and maintenance of this collection.
Additional taxa represented in the collection include:
- 6 – Acer palmatum (includes cultivar ‘Yatsubusa’)
- 3 – Pinus parviflora
- 2 – P. rigida
- 2 – Ginkgo biloba (includes cultivar ‘Chi-Chi’)
- 2 – Ulmus parvifolia
- 1 ea. – Acer buergerianum var. trinerve, Betula sp., Carpinus sp., Cedrus atlantica ‘Glauca’, Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Squarrosa’, Cycas revoluta, Juniperus conferta, J. sp., Malus sp., Pinus mugo, P. nigra, Prunus subhirtella, Rhododendron ‘Wakaebisu’, Sageretia thea, Syringa vulgaris ‘Prairie Petite’, Taxodium distichum, Tilia sp., Ulmus crassifolia.
The collection is displayed adjacent to the Dana Greenhouses, approximately a 10-minute walk from either the Arborway Gate or the Forest Hills Gate, and about a twenty-minute walk from the Bussey Street Gate. Look for the wooden lath house overlooking the Leventritt Shrub and Vine Garden, just beyond the stone wall running along its southwestern border. Use the stairwell that cuts through the stone wall, or walk behind the Leventritt Pavilion for an accessible path to the Bonsai Collection. If driving, park outside the Centre Street Gate or along the Arborway.
The collection is on view from mid April through mid November, daily from 8:00am to 3:45pm, excluding holidays. A wheelchair-accessible, crushed stone path from the Leventritt Shrub and Vine Garden leads to a paved path surrounding the wooden structure that houses the collection. Please note that Linden Path, which connects Meadow Road to the north entry of the Leventritt Garden path, may not be accessible to wheelchairs in all weather. There is no entry to the bonsai pavillion itself; the structure is designed to allow visitors to view the collection from the outside.
Labels provide plant names and the year each was first trained as bonsai. On select Thursdays and Sundays the pavilion will be opened by a trained volunteer. You will have the opportunity for an up close and personal look at the bonsai and penjing and the volunteers will be available to answer questions. Also, use your cellphone to find out more about this special collection; when you visit, look for signs for our mobile tour and dial 617.895.4085.
How long should I explore?
Most visitors spend between ten and twenty minutes viewing the collection, which may be enjoyed from multiple angles as visitors circulate around the perimeter of the lath house.
Plan your visit to the Arboretum.
- Special Bonsai Issue. 2006. Arnoldia Volume 64(2-3). Dedicated to the restoration of the collection.
- Cook, Robert E. 1993. Why Are Bonsai Leaves Small? Arnoldia 15(1): 19-23. [pdf]
- Del Tredici, Peter. 1989. The Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Arnoldia 49(3): 2-37. [pdf]
- Tortorici Derderian, Constance. 1976. Subtropical Bonsai for Indoor Gardening. Arnoldia 36(1): 1-21. [pdf]
- Vining, Donald M. 1971. Bonsai: Nature in Miniature. Arnoldia 31(5): 274-282. [pdf]
- Wyman, Donald. 1964. Bonsai at the Arnold Arboretum. Arnoldia 24(12): 101-104. [pdf]
Search for related articles in Arnoldia, the magazine of the Arnold Arboretum.
REPOTTING The smaller the pot, the more frequent the need for repotting. This procedure is best done in early spring mid to late March before the plant shows signs of growth. After the plant is removed from its container, 2 to 3 centimeters (one inch, more or less) of roots plus their attached soil are removed from the sides and bottom of the rootball. Any roots thicker than a pencil are cut off to encourage small feeder roots to develop. This rejuvenates the root system of the plant and prevents lethal girdling roots from forming. After the rootball is trimmed, the plant is returned to its original container, surrounded by fresh soil. The large hinokis are repotted every 4 to 5 years, while the smaller plants are repotted every 2 to 3 years.
SOIL MIXES Plant roots are so intimately involved with soil particles that it is best to think of the soil as part of the plant itself. Therefore, time and care needs to go into its preparation. The potting mix should provide for both water retention and air circulation. Our repotting mixes consist of coarse sand (particle size 1 to 3 mm), peat moss or leaf mold, and screened loam, with proportions varying for different plants. In general, we use one-half sand, one-quarter loam, and one-quarter peat for the conifers; and one-third sand, one-third peat, and one-third loam for deciduous trees. In either case, small amounts of superphosphate and organic nitrogen fertilizer are added to the soil mix.
PRUNING There are no universal rules about how much to prune a bonsai; the techniques vary according to the species. The best time to prune is when the plants are producing new growth in early spring for deciduous plants, such as the cherries and japanese maples, in mid spring for pines and spruces, and in early to mid summer for the junipers and hinokis. At least 50 percent of the new growth is removed at the time of pruning. If the plant produces a second flush of leaves later in the growing season, these also must be pruned.
Additional pruning procedures are used for specific groups of plants.
- Pines The number of candles is thinned by 1/2 to 2/3, and those that remain are shortened.
- Spruces and firs The newly flushing shoots are pinched back to half their length, inducing replacement buds to form at the base of the new growth rather than at the tip.
- Maples The new shoots are pinched back to a maximum of two pairs of leaves and sometimes only one pair. Any vertical-growing shoots are removed or wired into a horizontal position.
- Hinokis and juniper Because these plants produce new growth throughout the growing season, the new growth is pinched back several times. If it is not rigorously thinned, the new growth becomes excessively congested and subject to death by self-shading.
WIRING In young, vigorous bonsai, shaping the branches with copper or aluminum wire is an extremely important part of the training process. We generally wire branches in a horizontal position to achieve the effect of age. It is important to remember that wire should not be left on the tree more than a year since the branch can easily be girdled by it.
On plants as old as the hinoki cypresses in the Larz Anderson Collection, reorienting their twisted branches with wire is very difficult. These branches thicken so slowly that it may take two or three years for them to produce enough wood to overcome their old orientation. We have found that tying them down with nylon fishing line is more effective than wiring.
WATERING Because the Larz Anderson Collection consists of large plants in small pots, their water requirements are high. During spring growth, they need watering at least once a day. In summer, daily watering is the minimum on days when no rain falls, and often they require more.
To determine if a plant needs water, we place the palm of the hand on the soil surface. If we detect any moisture, we do not water the plant. If it is dry to the touch, we water it. The palm is less heavily calloused than the fingertips and therefore more sensitive. The rootball of a healthy bonsai behaves like a sponge, that is, water is uniformly distributed throughout its mass at all times, so the moisture content of the surface mirrors that of the base.
When watering, we take care not to wet the foliage, especially on sunny days when water drops can magnify the sun’s energy enough to produce burn spots. At watering time, we fill the pot to the top and allow the water to drain through; then we fill the pot a second time. This double dousing ensures that we wet the entire rootball; any excess will percolate out the drainage holes. If only the top part of the rootball is moistened, the bottom will become excessively dry and the plant could be seriously injured. Less frequent, thorough watering is always preferable to frequent light watering for any containerized plant.
FERTILIZING While the instructions provided by the Yokohama Nursery call for fertilizing the plants with powdered oil cake (consisting of soybean or rapeseed after the oil has been pressed out) or bonemeal, we use a chemical fertilizer solution diluted to a concentration of approximately 0.01 percent nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. When growth begins in the spring, we water the plants with this solution every one to two weeks until mid July, after which point we fertilize only once every two to three weeks through October. In November, the plants are going dormant, and we stop fertilizing them altogether.
WINTER STORAGE In the milder parts of the United States, as in much of Japan, bonsai can be left out-of-doors all winter with only minimal protection from the elements. New England’s more severe winter weather requires us to protect the plants. A plant that is perfectly hardy growing in the ground is not as hardy when grown in a container above ground; the soil, which has great insulating power, never gets as cold as the air, which has no insulating value at all.
The Arboretum bonsai are stored in a concrete-block structure with the temperature between 33 and 36 degrees Fahrenheit. The plants are checked for water once a week. Generally they need watering about once a month. If the plants become too dry during storage, they become difficult to rewet in spring. On the other hand, if the plants are kept too wet in storage, they become susceptible to fungal infections.
As long as the temperatures remain below 36 degrees, the plants survive even in total darkness. Storage that dark will not work at higher temperatures. The key to successful winter storage is to make sure that the plants are fully dormant before they go in and that they come out before they show any signs of growth. Typically, our plants go into cold storage on Veterans Day (November 11) and come out on Patriots Day (April 19), although a week either way makes little difference.
Excerpted from “Early American Bonsai: The Larz Anderson Collection of the Arnold Arboretum” by Peter Del Tredici, which was published in Arnoldia (Summer 1989) 49(3): 2-27.