Expeditions Unveiled

Overview
Joseph Rock Choni Map 57956

Choni Territory, Upper and Lower T’ieh-Pu country and route to Sung-Pan, J. F. Rock, 1925-1927. From “Ch’ing-Hai upper Yellow River expedition [for the Arnold Arboretum, 1924-1927].”

Expeditions Unveiled

In its nearly 150-year history, The Arnold Arboretum has played an extraordinary role in botanical exploration of the temperate and tropical regions of the world, with an emphasis on the woody floras of North America and Eastern Asia. To accomplish the task of documenting the botanical diversity of these regions, the Arboretum has dispatched its own staff collectors, collaborated with other institutions, and contracted with other individuals to make collections from wild populations of plants. These expeditions to collect germplasm (plants and seeds) and herbarium vouchers have strongly supported the institution’s commitment to scientific research, conservation, education, and horticulture.

Expeditions Unveiled is the Arboretum’s first–and ongoing–effort to comprehensively define, quantify, and organize the Arboretum’s botanical exploration efforts. The webpages assembled here serve as a public resource for information chronicling specific exploration efforts and collection events where germplasm or preserved plant specimens were added to the collections of the Arnold Arboretum. For organizational purposes, the following definitions have been used:

  • An expedition is a collection event sponsored by the Arboretum and carried out by Arboretum staff, with planned objective(s) to collect living or preserved plant specimens. In some instances, a collection event may not have been formally sponsored by the Arboretum, but resulted in significant contributions to the collections (living or preserved); it is included as a non-Arnold Arboretum expedition.
  • A campaign is a collection event with more than one discrete start and end date, yet with objective(s) (e.g., location or taxa) that remained consistent over time.
  • A contract is a collection event where the Arnold Arboretum sponsored and determined or agreed to the objective(s), but Arboretum staff did not participate.

At present, the Timeline features 96 collection events that occurred between 1876 and 2015, in some 60 different nations and territories. Each event listed contains basic descriptive information, while a number also include links to profiles comprising narrative summaries, images, and links to additional resources. Only events that contain sufficient basic details (e.g., dates, locations, participants) appear. Over time, additional historical events will be added as archives are reviewed and new information is gathered. Future Arboretum expeditions will be added shortly after the conclusion of each, with new profiles containing trip images, trip reports, and other information as they become available. For more information about the Expeditions Unveiled project, click on the About tab.

 

Timeline

Featured Arnold Arboretum Expeditions

Complete Timeline, 1876-present

Year(s) Title
1876-1877 Contracted Collections in Japan
Event Type Contract
Date 1876-1877
Location(s) Japan: Hokkaido
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) Sapporo Agricultural College
More info
1877 Hayden's Survey of the U.S. Territories
Event Type Expedition
Date 1877
Location(s) United States: California, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s) Asa Gray1 and Joseph D. Hooker2
Other Institution(s) 1Harvard University, 2Kew Gardens, United States National Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 1871-1877
1879 Expedition to North Carolina for Shortia galacifolia (Oconee bells)
Event Type Expedition
Date Spring 1879
Location(s) United States: North Carolina
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s) Asa Gray1, William M. Canby, and John H. Redfield
Other Institution(s) 1Harvard University
1880 Collections from the Forests of North America Survey
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum expedition
Date January 1880-June 1880, and June 1880-October 1880
Location(s) United States: Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah / Canada: British Columbia
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s) George Engelmann, Francis Skinner, Charles C. Parry, Cyrus G. Pringle, Robert Douglas, and Sereno Watson
Other Institution(s) United States Department of Interior
1883-1884 Collections from the Northern Transcontinental Survey
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum expedition
Date 1883-1884
Location(s) United States: California, Montana, Oregon, and Washington
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s) Townshend S. Brandegee, H.C. Putnam, Andrew Roberson, and Raphael Pumpelly
Other Institution(s)
1885 Journey to the West Indies
Event Type Expedition
Date February 1885
Location(s) Antigua, Barbados, Martinique, and Saint Kitts
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent and Charles E. Faxon
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1885 Expedition to North Carolina
Event Type Expedition
Date Autumn 1885
Location(s) United States: North Carolina
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1886 Expedition to the Carolinas
Event Type Expedition
Date Autumn 1886
Location(s) United States: North Carolina, and South Carolina
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent and Charles E. Faxon
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1886-1887 Journey to Alabama, Florida, and Louisiana
Event Type Campaign
Date April 1886, Autumn 1886, and Spring 1887
Location(s) United States: Alabama, Florida, and Louisiana
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent and Charles E. Faxon
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) United States Lighthouse Board (funding)
1887 Journey to Texas and Mexico
Event Type Expedition
Date April 1897
Location(s) United States: Texas / Mexico: Coahuila
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1892 Journey to Japan
Event Type Expedition
Date July-December 1892
Location(s) Japan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s) Philip Codman, James Veitch, and Gifford Pinchot
Other Institution(s)
More info
1896 Collections from the U.S. Forestry Commission
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum Expedition
Date July-September 1896
Location(s) United States: California, Oregon, and Wyoming
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s) John Muir, William M. Canby, and Gifford Pinchot
Other Institution(s)
1897 Expedition to Alaska and Canadian Rockies for the Silva of North America
Event Type Expedition
Date August 1897
Location(s) United States: Alaska and California / Canada: British Columbia
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Herbarium
Other Participant(s) John Muir and William M. Canby
Other Institution(s)
1898 Journey to Florida
Event Type Expedition
Date March-May 1898, and November 1898
Location(s) United States: Florida
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1898 Journey to Alabama
Event Type Expedition
Date October 1898
Location(s) United States: Alabama
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1898 Survey of Pikes Peak, Plum Creek, and South Platte Forest Reserves
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum Expedition
Date August-October 1898
Location(s) United States: California, Oregon, and Wyoming
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) John George Jack
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) United States Department of Interior (funding)
1899 Journey of May
Event Type Expedition
Date May 1899
Location(s) United States: Georgia
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s) William M. Canby
Other Institution(s)
1900 Contracted Collections of Cedrus libani
Event Type Contract
Date 1900 (seed arrived in 1902)
Location(s) Turkey: Taurus Mountains
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Walter Siehe
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1901-1947 Exploration of the United States
Event Type Campaign
Date 1901-1947
Location(s) Contiguous United States
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Ernest Jesse Palmer
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) Missouri Botanical Garden
More info
1903 Journey Round The World
Event Type Expedition
Date 1903
Location(s) China, Korea, Japan, Great Britain, Germany, Indonesia, Russia, Ukraine, and Singapore
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s) John Muir and R. Sargent
Other Institution(s)
1904 Expedition to the Western United States and Canada
Event Type Expedition
Date August 1904
Location(s) United States: California / Canada: Alberta
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) John George Jack and Alfred J. Rehder
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1905 Expedition to East Asia
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum expedition
Date July 1-December 1905
Location(s) China, South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and Taiwan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) John George Jack
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1905-1906 Expedition to Central and South America
Event Type Expedition
Date November-April 1906
Location(s) Chile, Ecuador, Panama, and Peru
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Charles S. Sargent
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1907-1909 First Expedition to China
Event Type Expedition
Date January 1907-May 1909
Location(s) China
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Ernest H. Wilson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1909-1912 Expedition to Northern China
Event Type Expedition
Date February 1909-1912
Location(s) China
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) William M. Purdom
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) Veitch Nurseries (funding and recipient of germplasm)
More info
1910-1911 Expedition to China
Event Type Expedition
Date April 1910-March 1911
Location(s) China: Hubei, Sichuan, Tibet
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Ernest H. Wilson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1914-1915 Expedition to Japan
Event Type Expedition
Date February 1914-February 1915
Location(s) Japan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Ernest H. Wilson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1913-1920 Contracted Collections for the Flora of the Southeastern United States
Event Type Contract
Date Spring and autumn, 1913-1920
Location(s) United States: Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Thomas G. Harbison
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1917-1918 Expedition to Eastern Asia
Event Type Expedition
Date January 1917-December 1918
Location(s) Korean Peninsula (present-day North Korea and South Korea), Japan, and Taiwan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Ernest H. Wilson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1921 Expedition to Glacier National Park
Event Type Expedition
Date August-September 1921
Location(s) United States: Montana / Canada
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) John George Jack and Susan Delano McKelvey
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1922 Expedition to New England
Event Type Expedition
Date July 1922
Location(s) United States: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) John George Jack and Susan Delano McKelvey
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1924-1927 Expedition to Northwestern China and Northeastern Tibet
Event Type Expedition
Date Spring 1924-May 1927
Location(s) China and the Tibetan Plateau
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Joseph F. Rock
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1926 Contract Collections in the Balkan Peninsula
Event Type Contract
Date May-October 1926
Location(s) Greece and Bulgaria
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) John Mattfeld
Other Institution(s)
1926-1927 Expedition of the Harvard Institute of Tropical Biology and Medicine
Event Type Contract
Date October 1926-May 1927
Location(s) Kenya and Liberia
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) David H. Linder1
Other Institution(s) 1Harvard Institute of Tropical Biology and Medicine
1927-1932 Campaign in Cuba
Event Type Campaign
Date 23 July-10 October 1927, 19 January-10 May 1928, July-August 1929, January-April 1930, August 1931, and January-April 1932
Location(s) Cuba: Ceinfuegos and Soledad
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) John George Jack and Alfred J. Rehder
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1928-1936 Campaign in the Western United States
Event Type Campaign
Date 11 October-December 1928, 16 January-17 March 1929, April-8 June 1929, December 1929-April 1930, April-June 1931, March-May 1932, April-June 1934, November 1935-March 1936
Location(s) United States: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada, and Oklahoma
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Susan D. McKelvey
Other Participant(s) Alice Eastwood and Oscar E. Hamilton
Other Institution(s)
More info
1928-1932 Collections for the Flora of the Solomon Islands, Madagascar, and Vanuatu
Event Type Contract
Date February 1928-April 1929, unknown month 1929-February 1930, March 1930-May 1932
Location(s) Australia, Madagascar, Vanuatu and Solomon Islands
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Frank S. Kajewski
Other Institution(s)
1932-1934 Collections for the Flora of Honduras
Event Type Contract
Date February 1932-March 1934
Location(s) Honduras
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) James B. Edwards
Other Institution(s)
1932-1933 Expedition to Northeast British Columbia and Alberta
Event Type Campaign
Date June 1932 and summer 1932
Location(s) Canada: British Columbia and Alberta
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Hugh M. Raup
Other Participant(s) Abbe C. Ernst
Other Institution(s)
1932-1933 Collections for the Flora of the Solomon Islands
Event Type Contract
Date July 1932-December 1933
Location(s) Solomon Islands
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Leonard John Brass
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1933-1934 First Archbold Expedition to New Guinea
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum expedition
Date 1933-1934
Location(s) Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Leonard John Brass
Other Institution(s)
1933-1935 Collections for the Plants of Mexico
Event Type Contract
Date May 1934-August 1935
Location(s) Mexico
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Cornelius Herman Mueller1 and Mary Elisabeth Mueller
Other Institution(s) 1University of Texas
1934 Expedition to the Balkan Peninsula
Event Type Expedition
Date Summer 1934
Location(s) Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Romania
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Edgar S. Anderson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) United States Department of Agriculture
1934 Contract Collections in Liberia
Event Type Contract
Date Summer 1934
Location(s) Liberia
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Julius Max Dinklage
Other Institution(s)
1934-1935 Collections for the Plants of Guatemala
Event Type Contract
Date July 1934-January 1935
Location(s) Guatamala: Hueheutenango, Quezaltenango, and Quiche
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Alexander Frank Skutch
Other Institution(s)
1936-1937 Second Archbold Expedition to New Guinea
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum Expedition
Date February 1936-March 1937
Location(s) Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Leonard John Brass
Other Institution(s)
1937-1938 Terry-Holden Expedition
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum Expedition
Date 29 September 1937-15 January 1938
Location(s) Guyana: Georgetown, Bartica, and Acarai Mountains
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Albert Charles Smith1
Other Institution(s) 1American Museum of Natural History, New York Botanical Garden, and Yale School of Forestry
1938 Expedition to Mexico
Event Type Expedition
Date August-September 1938
Location(s) Mexico
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Ivan M. Johnston
Other Institution(s)
1938-1939 Collections for the Plants of Yunnan Province, China
Event Type Contract
Date April 1938-September 1939
Location(s) China: Yunnan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Te-tsun Yü
Other Institution(s) Fan Memorial Institute of Biology
1938 Collections for the Flora of Panama
Event Type Expedition
Date 17 June 1938-20 August 1938
Location(s) Panama
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert Everard Woodson Jr.
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1938-1939 Third Archbold Expedition to New Guinea
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum Expedition
Date 1938-1939
Location(s) Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Leonard John Brass
Other Institution(s)
1939 Expedition to Northwest Canada
Event Type Expedition
Date Summer 1939
Location(s) Canada: British Columbia
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Hugh M. Raup
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1940-1941 Contract Collections for the Plants of Mexico
Event Type Contract
Date July 1940-February 1941
Location(s) Mexico: Oxaca
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) G. Martinez-Calderon
Other Institution(s)
1940-1941 Expedition to Central America
Event Type Contract
Date 18 Dec 1940-9 Feb 1941
Location(s) Nicaragua and Guatemala
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Grant Verne
Other Institution(s)
1941 Collections in Mexico
Event Type Expedition
Date 1 August-November 1941
Location(s) Mexico
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Ivan M. Johnston
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) Carnegie Institute
1943-1944 Alaska Military Highway Expedition
Event Type Campaign
Date May 1943-September 1943, and May 1944-September 1944
Location(s) United States: Alaska / Canada: British Columbia
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Hugh M. Raup
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1944-1956 Campaign in Panama and Isla San Jose
Event Type Campaign
Date October-November 1944, March-April 1945, Autumn 1955, and Spring 1956
Location(s) Panama
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Ivan M. Johnston
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1947 Metasequoia Collection
Event Type Contract
Date Autumn 1947
Location(s) China
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Ching-Tsan Hwa1 and H.H. Hu2
Other Institution(s) 1National Central University, 2Fan Memorial Institute of Biology
More info
1947 Collections for the Plants of Fiji
Event Type Contract
Date February-November 1947
Location(s) Fiji
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s)
Other Participant(s) Albert Charles Smith1
Other Institution(s) 1National Museum of Natural History, John Simion Guggenhiem Memorial Foundation (funding), Penrose Fund of the American Philosophical Society (funding), and Bache Fund of the National Academy of Sciences (funding)
1948 Archbold Cape York Expedition
Event Type Contract
Date 1948
Location(s) Australia: Cape York Peninsula
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Leonard John Brass
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1953 Fourth Archbold Expedition to New Guinea
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum expedition
Date March 1953-November 1953
Location(s) Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Leonard John Brass
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1956-1957 Fifth Archbold Expedition to New Guinea
Event Type Non-Arnold Arboretum expedition
Date March 1956-January 1957
Location(s) Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Leonard John Brass
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1960-1980 Exploration for the Flora of the Lesser Antilles
Event Type Campaign
Date 1960-61*, 1962-63*, February 1970, 1971, 1971-72*, 1973-74*, 1976-77*, 1977-78*, March-May 1979, 1979-80*, February-March 1980.
NOTE: *Exact year of travel uncertain. Trips were reported in the Arnold Arboretum Annual Director’s Reports (spanning two calendar years) without exact dates.
Location(s) Antigua, Aruba, Barbados, Barbuda, Bonaire, Curaco, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, La Desirade, Les Saintes, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, Redonda. Saba, St. Croix, St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Martin, St. Thomas, and St. Vincent
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Richard A. Howard
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1968 Expedition to Venezuela
Event Type Expedition
Date September 1968
Location(s) Venezuela
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Gordon Parker DeWolf
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1968-1972 Campaign in Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea
Event Type Campaign
Date March-June 1968, September 1968-June 1969, 1970-71*, and 1971-72*
NOTE: *Exact year of travel uncertain. Trips were reported in the Arnold Arboretum Annual Director’s Reports (spanning two calendar years) without exact dates.
Location(s) Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Shiu-Ying Hu
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
1977 Expedition to South Korea and Japan
Event Type Expedition
Date September 1977-October 1977
Location(s) Japan: Honshu and Hokkaido / South Korea
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Steven A. Spongberg and Richard E. Weaver
Other Participant(s) Carl Ferris Miller
Other Institution(s) Chollipo Arboretum
More info
1978 Pacific Northwest Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date October 1978
Location(s) Canada: British Columbia
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert G. Nicholson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1979 Expedition to North Carolina
Event Type Expedition
Date September 1979
Location(s) United States: North Carolina
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Richard Weaver and James Nickerson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1979 Western States Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date November 1979
Location(s) United States: California
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert G. Nicholson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1979 Missouri and Illinois Collections
Event Type Expedition
Date December 1979
Location(s) United States: Missouri and Illinois
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) John (Jack) Alexander and Gary Koller
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1980 USSR Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 3 August-20 September 1980
Location(s) Soviet Union (European Russia and Northern Caucasus)
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Richard E. Weaver
Other Participant(s) Robert Hebb, Frederick Seaman
Other Institution(s) New York Botanical Garden
1980 First Sino-American Botanical Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date August 10-November 16, 1980
Location(s) China
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Steven A. Spongberg
Other Participant(s) Bruce Bartholomew1, David E. Boufford2, A.L Chang3, Z. Cheng3, T.R. Dudley4, S.A. He5, Y.X. Jin3, Q.Y. Li3, J.L. Luteyn6, S.C. Sun3, Y.C. Tang7, J.X. Wan3, and T.S. Ying7
Other Institution(s) 1University of California, Berkeley; 2Carnegie Museum of Natural History (later Harvard University); 3Kunming Institute of Botany; 3Wuhan Institute of Botany; 4U.S. National Arboretum; 5Jiangsu Institute of Botany, Nanjing; 6New York Botanical Garden; and 7Institute of Botany, Beijing.
More info
1981 Western States Botanical Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date September 1981
Location(s) United States: California
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert G. Nicholson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1982 North Africa Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date September 1982
Location(s) Morocco
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert G. Nicholson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1984 Second Sino-American Botanical Expedition to Yunnan, China
Event Type Expedition
Date June-September 1984
Location(s) China: Yunnan
Collection Type(s) Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) David E. Boufford
Other Participant(s) Bruce Bartholomew1, Daniel H. Nicholson2, Paul L. Redfearn3
Other Institution(s) 1California Academy of Sciences, 2Smithsonian Institution, 3Missouri Botanical Garden
More info
1984 New Jersey Pine Barrens Collections
Event Type Expedition
Date 1984
Location(s) United States: Whitesbog, New Jersey
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Peter Del Tredici and John H. Alexander
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1985 Southeastern States Expedition (Center for Plant Conservation Campaign)
Event Type Expedition
Date 18 October 1985-1 November 1985
Location(s) United States: Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert G. Nicholson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) Center for Plant Conservation
1986 Expedition to Bhutan
Event Type Expedition
Date March-April 1986
Location(s) Bhutan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) David E. Boufford
Other Participant(s) Bruce Bartholomew1
Other Institution(s) 1California Academy of Sciences
1986 Southeastern States Expedition (Center for Plant Conservation Campaign)
Event Type Expedition
Date 12 October-23 October 1986
Location(s) United States: North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert G. Nicholson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) Center for Plant Conservation
1986 Third Sino-American Botanical Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date August-October 1986
Location(s) China: Guizhou Province
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) David E. Boufford and Steven A Spongberg
Other Participant(s) Bruce Bartholomew1
Other Institution(s) 1California Academy of Sciences; Guizhou Institute of Biology; Chinese Academy of Sciences
1987 Southeastern States Expedition (Center for Plant Conservation Campaign)
Event Type Expedition
Date October 1987
Location(s) United States: Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert G. Nicholson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) Center for Plant Conservation
1987 Southwestern States Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 8 August-21 August 1987
Location(s) United States: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Peter Del Tredici
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1988 Southeastern States Expedition (Center for Plant Conservation Campaign)
Event Type Expedition
Date 7 October-17 October 1988
Location(s) United States: North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert G. Nicholson
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s) Center for Plant Conservation
1989 Eastern China Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date October 6, 1989-October 15, 1989
Location(s) China
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Peter Del Tredici
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
1989 Southeastern States Expedition (Center for Plant Conservation Campaign)
Event Type Expedition
Date November 1989
Location(s) United States: Georgia and Florida
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert G. Nicholson
Other Participant(s) Mark Schwartz
Other Institution(s) Center for Plant Conservation
1994 North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC), Expedition to Hubei
Event Type Expedition
Date September 6-October 11, 1994
Location(s) China: Hubei
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Peter Del Tredici
Other Participant(s) Kevin Conrad1, Paul Meyer2, Bill Thomas3, Mao Cailiang4, and Hao Riming4
Other Institution(s) 1United States National Arboretum, 2The Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania, 3Longwood Gardens, 4Nanjing Botanical Gardens
More info
1997 North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC), Expedition to Changbai Shan
Event Type Expedition
Date September 4-September 21, 1997
Location(s) China: Changbai Shan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Peter Del Tredici
Other Participant(s) Kris Bachtell1, Zhong Linsheng2, Jeff Lynch3, Paul Meyer4, Sheng Ning5, Zhao Shuqing2, Sun Long Xing6, Charles Tubesing7, Cao Wei2, and Wang Xianli2
Other Institution(s) 1The Morton Arboretum, 2Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology, 3Longwood Gardens, 4The Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania, 5Nanjing Botanical Garden, 6Changbai Xian Forestry Department, and 7The Holden Arboretum
1997 Expedition to Yunnan and Sichuan
Event Type Expedition
Date 3 September-3 October 1997
Location(s) China: Sichuan and Yunnan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Steven A. Spongberg and Andy Bell
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
2002 Expedition to Guizhou
Event Type Expedition
Date 10 September-28 September 2002
Location(s) China: Guizhou
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Peter Del Tredici and Jianhua Li
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
2003 Expedition to Sichuan
Event Type Expedition
Date 19 September-27 September 2003
Location(s) China: Sichuan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Jianhua Li
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
2008 Adirondack Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 6 October-10 October 2008
Location(s) United States: New York
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann, Steven Schneider, and John H. Alexander
Other Participant(s) Dennis Collins1 and Tim Thibault1
Other Institution(s) 1Mount Auburn Cemetery
2010 North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC) Expedition to Shaanxi, Hebei, and Beijing
Event Type Expedition
Date 18 September-29 September 2010
Location(s) China: Shaanxi, Hebei, and Beijing
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann
Other Participant(s) Anthony Aiello1 and Wang Kang2
Other Institution(s) 1Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania and 2Beijing Botanical Garden
2011 Twin Tier Trip to New York and Pennsylvania
Event Type Expedition
Date 23-30 July; 9-20 September 2011
Location(s) United States: New York and Pennsylvania
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann
Other Participant(s) Jeff Carstens1, Andrew Schmitz2, and Mark Widrlechner1
Other Institution(s) 1United States Department of Agriculture and 2The Brenton Arboretum
USDA Trip Report (PDF)
2012 Virginia Plant Exploration
Event Type Expedition
Date 20 October-24 October 2012
Location(s) United States: Virginia
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann
Other Participant(s) Anthony Aiello1
Other Institution(s) 1Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania
2013 Indiana and Southern Illinois Plant Exploration
Event Type Expedition
Date 30 September-7 October 2013
Location(s) United States: Illinois and Indiana
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann
Other Participant(s) Jonathan Damery
Other Institution(s)
2014 Ozarks Plant Exploration
Event Type Expedition
Date 1 October-9 October 2014
Location(s) United States: Arkansas
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann
Other Participant(s) Anthony Aiello1, Brent Baker2, Timothy Boland3, Ian Jochems 3, and Theo Witsell2
Other Institution(s) 1Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania, 2The Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission (ANHC), and 3The Polly Hill Arboretum
More info
2015 North Idaho Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 24 August-4 September 2015
Location(s) United States: Idaho, Northern Counties
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Kyle Port
Other Participant(s) Larry Hufford1, David Port2, Steve Ullrich1, Paul Warnick3
Other Institution(s) 1Washington State University, 2Harvest House, and 3University of Idaho Arboretum & Botanic Garden
More info
2015 North American-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC) Expedition to collect Acer griseum
Event Type Expedition
Date 1 September-18 September 2015
Location(s) China: Chongqing, Hebei, Gansu, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann
Other Participant(s) Anthony Aiello1, Kris Bachtell2, and Wang Kang3
Other Institution(s) 1Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania, 2The Morton Arboretum, and 3Beijing Botanical Garden
More info
2015 Expedition to Sichuan
Event Type Expedition
Date 18 September-29 September 2015
Location(s) China: Sichuan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann, Ned Friedman
Other Participant(s) Gao Xinfen1, Li Meng1, Yin Kaipu1
Other Institution(s) 1Chengdu Institute of Biology; Huanglong Nature Reserve
More info
2016 Hunnewell Intern New Hampshire Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 10 June-12 June 2016
Location(s) United States
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Adam Banks, Adam Beck, Natalie Buckley-Medrano, Giovani Camargo, Wyatt Dixon, Robert Dowell, Andrew Gapinski, Jordan Morgan, Connor Ryan, and Jenna Zukswert
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
More info
2016 North American-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC) Sichuan Plant Collecting Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 10-25 September 2016
Location(s) China: Sichuan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann
Other Participant(s) Anthony Aiello1 and Wang Kang2
Other Institution(s) 1Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania, 2Beijing Botanical Garden
2016 Kentucky Plant Exploration Trip
Event Type Expedition
Date 15 September-22 September 2016
Location(s) Kentucky
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Jenna Zukswert
Other Participant(s) Tim Boland1, Julian Campbell, Phillip Douglas2, Jack Johnston, Catherine Meholic3, Todd Rounsaville4
Other Institution(s) 1Polly Hill Arboretum, 2Gainesway Farm, 3Mt Cuba Center, 4The Arboretum, State Botanical Garden of Kentucky
More info
2016 Southern Appalachian Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 22 September-29 September 2016
Location(s) Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert Dowell, Jenna Zukswert
Other Participant(s) Thomas Clark1
Other Institution(s) 1Polly Hill Arboretum
2017 North American-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC) Sichuan Plant Collecting Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 16 September-1 October 2017
Location(s) China: Pingwu, Sichuan
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Michael Dosmann and Andrew Gapinski
Other Participant(s) LI Huaicheng1, QUAN Jian2, Jonathan Shaw3, WANG Kang2
Other Institution(s) 1Chengdu Institute of Biology, 2Beijing Botanical Garden, 3Harvard Magazine
2017 2017 Hunnewell Intern Expedition to Western Massachusetts
Event Type Expedition
Date 9 June–11 June 2017
Location(s) Massachusetts: Berkshire County, Franklin County
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Monica Alves, Adam Beck, Rachel Brinkman, Natalie Buckley-Medrano, Alex Burnette, Alexander Disyak, Robert Dowell, Melissa Green, Marcus Jensen, Rachel Lawlor, Elena Leander and Matthew McDermitt
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
2017 2017 Wisconsin Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 27 August-3 September 2017
Location(s) Wisconsin
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Tiffany Enzenbacher, Kyle Port
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
2017 2017 Arkansas-Missouri Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 22-30 September 2017
Location(s) United States: Arkansas, Missouri
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Robert Dowell, Kea Woodruff
Other Participant(s)
Other Institution(s)
2017 2017 Coastal Southeast Expedition
Event Type Expedition
Date 12-19 October 2017
Location(s) United States: North Carolina, South Carolina
Collection Type(s) Germplasm and Herbarium Specimens
Arnold Arboretum Participant(s) Sean Halloran, Jenna Zukswert
Other Participant(s) Thomas Clark1, Ethan Kauffman2, Catherine Meholic3, Jessica Slade4
Other Institution(s) 1Polly Hill Arboretum, 2Stoneleigh, 3University of Delaware Botanic Gardens, 4Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania
About

Goals, Process, and Outcomes

Expeditions Unveiled is an ongoing effort to define, inventory, and summarize the Arboretum’s history of plant exploration. The project initially developed in 2014 from a simple question we were unable to answer: How many expeditions have been mounted by and with the Arnold Arboretum?

Goals
1 Define ‘expedition’
2 Quantify the number of expeditions mounted by or with the Arboretum from 1872-present
3 Qualify expeditions consistently and systematically
4 Analyze expeditions for themes and trends
5 Archive findings internally, and provide summaries for the public on the Arboretum website

 

With nearly a century-and-a-half of domestic and international travel (not all of which was for the purposes of collecting), we soon discovered that in order to answer our question, we first needed to define what an expedition was, and what it was not (Goal 1). Simply put, collecting expeditions were defined as events that added germplasm or preserved plant specimens to the collections of the Arnold Arboretum, in contrast to other Arboretum travel and research projects. We then needed further definition to distinguish formal and planned expeditions from the informal (yet important) collecting activities enjoyed by Arboretum staff and associates over the years. We applied the following definitions during our review:

  • An expedition is a collection event sponsored by the Arboretum and carried out by Arboretum staff, with planned objective(s) to collect living or preserved plant specimens. In some instances, a collection event may not have been formally sponsored by the Arboretum, but resulted in significant contributions to the collections (living or preserved); it is included as a non-Arnold Arboretum expedition.
  • A campaign is a collection event with more than one discrete start and end date, yet with objective(s) (e.g., location or taxa) that remained consistent over time.
  • A contract is a collection event where the Arnold Arboretum sponsored and determined or agreed to the objective(s), but Arboretum staff did not participate.

The next step was to review our curatorial and library archives (including annual Director’s Reports), as well as the plant records database, to catalog in a spreadsheet all events that might be potentially defined as expeditions, even if it was a remote chance. The Director’s Reports were summaries of each fiscal year’s activities and frequently contained basic data pertaining to collecting and other travel events (e.g., dates, participants, or locations); they were particularly useful for getting information on historical activities. After generating this comprehensive list, we applied our definitions to determine which of them could be defined as expeditions, and if so, what type. The analysis revealed 389 activities that occurred between 1872 and 2014, 202 which we could associate as some sort of collection event. The next step was to separate the informal collecting activities from the formal expeditions, and then categorize the expeditions using our definitions (Goal 2). To do this, we surveyed our own and other institutional records, published reports and articles, and other resources to gather documentation on essential event details such as travel dates, participants, and of course stated objectives and other evidence of planning. This yielded a count of 152 expeditions (13 campaigns, 33 contracts, 96 Arboretum expeditions, and 10 non-Arnold Arboretum expeditions) and 50 events that we determined were not actual expeditions or where there was too little information to make any further determination. During this assessment, the Arboretum participated in three new expeditions in 2015, bringing the total count to 155.

Chart

In addition to creating a comprehensive inventory of collection events, we have begun to capture as many Expedition Summary Details about each one as possible, such as its duration, geographical location(s), and individual participants (Goal 3). To standardize this, we created a template to consistently summarize and make note of essential data from past expeditions. Importantly, this template serves as a means to catalogue information for future expeditions as well.

Expedition Summary Details

Category Description
Location Country and locality of collection and non-collection sites
Dates and Duration Start date and end date; number of days collecting if known
Participant(s) Individuals directly involved in the expedition, including Arboretum and non-Arnold Arboretum staff
Objective(s) Collection-based objectives (e.g., target taxa or location) and non-collection based goals (e.g., cultural or educational)
Collections Number and type (i.e., germplasm or herbarium vouchers) of collections mad
Field Notes Reference to written documents and images created/captured during an expedition
Trip Reports Reference to written summaries, articles, and other trip analysis
Endorsement Documentation of formal institutional support (e.g., funding)

 

By organizing expedition information in this manner, in the future we will be able to analyze individual as well as collective expeditions for themes and trends over time(Goal 4). This is particularly powerful as expedition data are integrated into the plant records database.

Lastly, in addition to creating a first-ever internal archive of Arboretum Expeditions, we wanted to provide an online public resource (Goal 5). With respect to the latter, this website contains an up-to-date timeline of some 100 Expeditions where we had sufficient documentation to create basic tabular summaries. For a number of expeditions on the timeline, we have also created separate profile pages that contain short narratives, selected images, and links to additional resources. In time, with the acquisition and analysis of new archival information, additional historical expeditions will be added to the timeline; they will be joined by all new expeditions conducted by and for the Arboretum. And, as Arboretum staff complete additional in-depth expedition reviews, new expedition profiles will be added.

A comprehensive account of the Arboretum’s long-term and on-going commitment to plant exploration, Expeditions Unveiled weaves a story of collectors in the field, what they brought back, and the impact they had on botany and horticulture.

Contributors

Michael Dosmann, Curator of Living Collections (project advisor)
Jordan Wood, 2014-15 Curatorial Fellow (project manager)
Lisa Pearson, Head of Library and Archives
Larissa Glasser, Library Assistant
Donna Tremonte, Applications Programmer
Kiley Dalrymple*, 2015 Library and Curation Intern
Lucas Galante*, 2015 Library and Curation Intern
Lydia Golitz*, 2016 Library and Curation Intern
Katharine Wilson, 2015 Isabella Welles Hunnewell Intern

*Bennington College Fieldwork Student